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Utilisation des EPD et FDES pour l’ACV bâtiment

Fiches de Déclaration Environnementale pour l’ACV bâtiment

Le rôle des Fiches de Déclaration Environnementale de produits dans l'ACV bâtiment

To correctly assess the environmental impacts of a building, it is necessary to calculate the environmental impacts of all the products used to construct it. This is why reliable materials data, particularly in the form of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs), is so critical to ensuring the quality of Building Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) results.

A ACV bâtiment  quantifies the lifetime environmental impacts of the actions and processes needed to construct a building and make it functional. While an EPD/FDES quantifies the lifetime environmental impacts of a single product.

The main goal of performing the LCA of your building is to improve the design and reduce the environmental impacts of the project. One of the easiest ways to achieve this aim is to select materials that perform better in terms of carbon and other impacts through the whole life cycle. This includes, for example, whether les matériaux ont un contenu recyclé (et donc une empreinte carbone réduite) ou s'ils doivent être remplacés moins souvent que d'autres matériaux pendant la phase d'utilisation du bâtiment.

Afin d'identifier les meilleures alternatives, il est donc crucial d'avoir accès à une base de données complète et robuste including data you can use with confidence. This is especially important when the Life Cycle Assessment is performed in the design stage, to improve the design before construction starts. By having access to different data sets and being able to compare the performance of different materials, you will be able to select the best alternatives for your design and reduce the environmental impacts overall.

Building materials data: why it matters

Lors de la sélection des matériaux de construction pour les calculs d'ACV, le principe à appliquer est de toujours choisir l'option de qualité la plus élevée disponible.

This means that, in order of preference, the selection should go like this:

  1. Product EPD from the manufacturer of the specific product you are planning to use, if available.
  2. Technically similar product EPDs from a local manufacturer, if you don’t know yet which manufacturer to use.
  3. Product category level EPD.
  4. Average LCA data for the product in question.

 EPDs are governed by international and European standards (in particular, ISOs 14025 and 14044 and EN 15804). Such standards support consistency, transparency and accuracy, making EPDs is a reliable way to assess the environmental impacts of building materials. EPDs make it possible to choose the highest-performing materials to reduce the overall embodied carbon of the building, and comply with regulations or achieve green building certification credits.

If local EPDs are not available, it is possible to use materials for the calculations with the same technical features as the materials you are planning to use, which means that the environmental impacts they would produce are roughly the same, and, therefore, can be used to calculate Whole Building LCA. It is also possible to use average LCA data.

EPD database vs. generic database: what’s the difference and how to use both

An EPD database is a database that contains comprehensive construction EPDs from one or more countries. These EPDs reflect the LCA analysis of specific materials produced by available manufacturers. 

generic LCA database is a database of industry average LCAs for selected material groups. An industry average LCA reflects the environmental performance of a material, calculated as an average across all manufacturers of that material. For example, if you are looking for the environmental emissions of paints in Germany, you will find the generic average LCA for all German paints. In this case, the average value consists of both the materials that have exceptional environmental performance and those that contribuent fortement aux émissions de CO2Cela pourrait signifier que, même si vous choisissez une peinture plus performante, le rapport final ne reflétera pas le fait que vous avez choisi une option plus durable.

While more countries and manufacturers worldwide work towards building EPD databases, using generic LCA data is still a viable option for performing Whole Building LCA. In short, if you can choose between EPDs and generic data, it is always preferable to use EPDs, but if that is not possible it’s better to use generic data and still perform LCA calculations.

One Click LCA utilise une méthodologie de régionalisation des données approuvée par le BRE conformément à la norme CEN/TR 15941:2010 pour ajuster les émissions aux conditions de fabrication locales. Cela signifie que vous pouvez utiliser les données d'autres fabricants, d'autres pays, et les adapter à vos conditions locales, pour obtenir des résultats conformes, fiables et exploitables.

By adopting Whole Building Life Cycle Assessment, designers and construction specialists all over the world can effectively measure and reduce the harmful impacts of their buildings, and, by making LCA a necessary step of any new construction or refurbishment project, the pressure on manufacturers and governments to incentivize the creation and use of EPDs will also increase.

Par conséquent, même si les EPD fournissent les résultats les plus fiables et les plus précis, les données ACV génériques restent une bonne option qui peut être utilisée dans tous les cas où les EPD ne sont pas disponibles.

Vous voulez voir comment vous pouvez tirer parti de la base de données One Click LCA dans la pratique ? Regardez la vidéo ci-dessous !

Ebook

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR BUILDINGS

Why it matters & how to use it

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What data is best to use for each stage of your project

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